It may happen that the rescuer himself falls through the ice. If the assistants were two or three, and they are connected to each other with a rope, they should take a horizontal position; using a knife or nail, make a hole in the ice in the ice and, using the scheme described above, pull the failed rescuer onto the ice. and then continue the operation to rescue the first victim, avoiding a dangerous place for 20-30 meters with great caution. Worse, when the rescuer was alone. If this happened in the immediate vicinity of the victim, then it is better, breaking off the ice, to break through to him, give him a knife or a nail and the end of the rope and, helping from the bottom, push him to the edge of the ice. When the victim crawled to the full length of the rope from the edge of the collapsed ice, he should be fixed with a sharp object over the ice and now help the rescuer to get out.
If a rescue group (usually consisting of 3 people) helps a person to fall through the ice, the first one should be tied around the belt with a rope, the other end of which is next to him at a distance determined by the length of this rope. there must be a rope with a loop at the end: the victim can freeze his hands so much that he can no longer hold the rope with them, and he can always throw a loop in his armpit.
25 meters to the polynya, the first rescuer should lie down on the ice and advance in belligerence. Reaching the distance from which you can precisely throw the rope, he makes one or two notches in the ice, which will support the arms and legs and throws the end of the rope to the victim. The second and third rescuers, acting on the command of the first, simultaneously pull the ropes that connect the victim and the rescuers. As soon as the victim was on the ice, he should be quickly dragged from the dangerous place to 10-15 m, and only then he can get up and move along the trail of the rescuers to a reliable ice or shore.
If the one who has fallen under the ice is dragged ashore and is unconscious, his mouth is opened first of all and his tongue is pulled out. Remove water from the stomach and lungs. To do this, put the victim across the belly with a roller out of clothes, a log or on a bent knee and strongly press his hands on his back. Artificial respiration is done until the patient regains consciousness.
The wintering fisherman lurks not only fragile ice. It is fraught with danger and low temperature. The nose, hands and feet are most sensitive to its action, especially the fingers, which are less protected from cold by clothing and are located in the most distant parts of the heart of the circulatory system. As a result of prolonged exposure to low temperatures, frostbite may occur. Medicine distinguishes four degrees of frostbite: the first is when blood vessel contraction is accompanied by skin pallor and loss of sensation at the site of frostbite, the second, on a pale area after warming up, bubbles appear with muddy bloody contents, and the skin becomes blue-purple. Signs of the third degree of frostbite: in the first days – bluish dye of the skin, blisters, scabs, in the following days – areas of skin necrosis. The death of the skin and deeper tissues is characteristic of a fourth-degree frostbite.
When the first degree of frostbite help to the victim is as follows. A pale area of the body should be wiped with alcohol or vodka, and then with fingers slowly and gently rub until redness of the skin. The frostbitten area can also be warmed in water, the temperature of which should be slowly raised from 18 to 37 degrees for 20-30 minutes and at the same time in water to make a slight rubbing. After the restoration of blood circulation, the frostbite part of the body must be wrapped up warmly, and the victim should be given hot tea or coffee. In the future, on the frostbite, place ointment dressings. For frostbites of the second, third and fourth degrees, victims should seek medical assistance.
The heavier consequence of prolonged exposure to low temperatures — freezing — occurs on ice. Predisposing to freeze the following: intoxication, overwork during long walking and long lying on the snow or ice. Signs of freezing: chills, lethargy, feeling tired, craving for sleep. A person falls asleep, during sleep, breathing gradually weakens, limbs become numb, and cardiac activity may stop. First aid freezing is as follows. The victim should be brought into a cool (!) Room and gently rub his entire body with clean, washed hands. If after this he does not show signs of life, give artificial respiration to him. Artificial respiration can be done in several ways. The most affordable and effective is from mouth to mouth or from mouth to nose.
People who are unconscious, language falls, which prevents the flow of air into the lungs. Therefore, the victim is laid on his back, his head is thrown back as much as possible, the lower jaw is pushed forward, after which a finger wrapped with soft tissue is examined with a circular motion of the oral cavity, freeing it from foreign objects. Pulling out the tongue and making sure that the airways are clear, proceed to artificial respiration. Assisting is at the head of the victim and keeps the head thrown back as much as possible back, which contributes to the most complete opening of the entrance to the larynx. One hand holds the head and neck, the other – pinches the nose. Then he takes a deep breath and, tightly pressing his mouth to the victim's mouth (in order not to touch the patient's nose and mouth, put a gauze napkin or handkerchief on them), makes an energetic exhalation, blowing air into the victim's mouth. Air injection is repeated rhythmically with the usual respiration rate – 16-18 breaths per minute.
If the victim's jaws are tightly compressed, you must put your index fingers into the corners of the mouth and push the lower jaw forward, gradually shifting the fingers to the chin and pulling it down. In case of artificial respiration in the way the mouth to the nose with one hand, placed on the crown, keep the head in the thrown back position, with the other raise the jaw and close the mouth. Take a deep breath, sweeping the victim's nose with his lips, take a deep breath. The main thing in the method is to keep your head in the correct position and create tightness during inhalation, otherwise the victim will not get air into the lungs. The chest remains motionless. With proper ventilation, the patient's chest, during air injection, rises and quickly falls during exhalation. The force of blowing air into the lungs should be no more than when inflating a volleyball camera. Artificial respiration is performed until self-breathing is restored.
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