Fish rely on eyesight, hearing, smell and touch to search for food. They are able to find food not only in clear water, but also in troubled, day, dusk and night. The lateral line, responding to the slightest wave vibrations in the water column, obviously plays a huge role here. That is why a plausible imitation of the movements of underwater inhabitants is so important. It is the natural "behavior" of the bait that provides its catch in the first place. This should be well understood by the angler who first picked up a winter fishing rod. In the fishing literature, one can sometimes find the statement that the shape of mormyshka does not play a significant role. It is difficult to agree with this: the nature of its movements often depends on the shape of the bait.
Once, on the Istra Reservoir, in the area of the Pyatnitsky reach base, I came across a very weak bite of a rather large perch. Of all the methods that I tried then, the following turned out to be successful. I am gaining a tiny mormyshka with one feed bloodworm, and from above I cling to the head of a large bloodworm cut by a razor. He waited a long time until the mormyshka sank to the bottom (five meters deep), but after a few minutes a decent trophy appeared on the ice. From time to time I raised the mormyshka, shook it, then lowered it to the bottom again …
In the summer, on a pond with a sandy-silty bottom, I conducted a small experiment: at a depth of about 50-60 cm I tested mormyshki of various weights and shapes. Flattened from above and below, the mormyshka raises a cloud of turbidity, “working” in the immediate vicinity of the muddy bottom. “Droplet” and “pellet”, only hitting the bottom, create light turbidity fountains. A flat mormyshka, forming noticeable clouds of turbidity, also accelerates them. It seems that some kind of bug is messing around at the bottom. Of course, the perch is hard to resist, so as not to grab it. The “record” in the game is somewhat reminiscent of a miniature bauble. From the vertical axis, it deviates to the sides by 5-10 cm. Such planning movements are able to provoke a perch, especially a large one.
During the game of the “Ural” and “ant,” the hook with the mounted crank turns to the right and left in the horizontal plane; while the body of the mormyshka deviates slightly from the vertical. These lures have effective nodding movements. The heavy "barrel", dropping to the bottom, with a barely noticeable work, nodding is forced, as it were, to bury itself in silt. In the water column, it moves vertically without deviating to the sides. The “devil” also plays, but it is useful to lead him along the perimeter of the hole, in various directions. A cone-shaped mormyshka with a hook No. 18-17, having sunk to the bottom, enters the upper layer of silt under the weight of the thickened part. The hook with the mounted bloodworm remains, which the fish takes without fear. Some lovers catch perch on such a mormyshka in combination with a tiny float.
In the Urals and Siberia in winter, mormysh is widely used as bait, as well as mormyshka imitating this crustacean. Its lower plane is ribbed, and the upper one is smooth. She moves, like Mormysh, in shocks, as if sideways. “Droplet”, “oatmeal”, “pellet” create vibrations that are less noticeable by the fish. They are indispensable in the dead end when a more delicate bait game is required. Experience shows that modern mormyshki, copying in their form the mayfly larva, mollusk Dreisenu and some other food objects, do not have any advantages in terms of the game over traditional baits. Now imagine such a picture. A tiny silver “drop” froze five centimeters from the bottom. Here she slightly touches him and, building up the vibrations, rushes up. Neither give nor take – an escaping "victim". A second – and the “droplet” run is interrupted by the grip of a perch.
What happened? Let's try to figure it out. The organs of the lateral line and hearing of fish are close in their functions. But there are differences in their perception of the environment. With a sideline, the fish perceives water vibrations, vibrations, pressure drops, as well as low-frequency sound waves. Moreover, in the low-frequency region, organs of both the lateral line and the hearing can work together. Due to the heightened sensitivity, the fish perceives even weak sounds in the water column. In our case, the perch was attracted by the nature of the movement and the size of the mormyshki, commensurate with the size of the feed objects that it usually feeds on. The perch along the side line clearly distinguishes between “familiar” and “unfamiliar” oscillations in the water of the bait, the local vortices and flows created by it.
Observing the work of the bait can give the fisher much. Here is at least such an example. It is known that most bites occur at the moment when the mormyshka comes off the bottom or is in close proximity to it. Therefore, in order to correctly use mormyshka, it is necessary to understand in advance experimentally for yourself how this or that bait works not only in the water column, but also in contact with the bottom. The choice of the shape of the mormyshka is often determined by the specifics of the reservoir, fishing conditions. Success often comes to that fisherman who is not afraid to experiment. What is also important is the color of the mormyshka, for fish distinguish color. This is evidenced even by the fact that during spawning, the color of males becomes much brighter than females. The practice of catching perch, roach and other fish shows that the color of the bait plays a role. Even with a fail-safe ruff.
Most fish see well, especially in front and side. They distinguish small objects at a distance of a meter. And fish such as trout, grayling, asp, see moving objects from a fairly decent distance. The reaction of fish to light and water illumination is different. Many of them are very sensitive to light and in winter, for example, avoid brightly lit places. This is clearly seen when many holes are drilled in a small area of ice. The fish moves away, and the fishermen in this case say that the holes are illuminated. Some fish prefer to stay in the depths in the summer. At the same time, the pike, crucian carp, rudd, and grayling are not at all embarrassed by the abundance of light. For example, a pike stands for hours at the very surface of the water, warming its back under the sun.
To choose the color of the mormyshka correctly, you need to have a good idea of the degree of water illumination depending on the time of day, weather conditions (clear, cloudy, very cloudy, etc.), fishing depth. In winter, water bodies are usually much more transparent, and the visibility of objects under the ice is about two times higher than in summer. The fisherman must take this factor into account.
It is legitimate in some way to compare the vision of fish and humans. For example, is it unpleasant for you to look at the bright glow of the solar disk or spiral in the light bulb? Your eyes are uncomfortable. Obviously, the fish also experience the same thing with the bright shine of mormyshka or baubles, or from direct sunlight. Is it because perches in the shallow waters in winter try to go under sunny ice under the snow covered in sunny weather? And by noon they move to deeper areas, where there is a shadow from pitfalls, snags, etc.
Thus, the movement of perches and other fish during the day can be explained, along with other factors, also by changes in the intensity of water illumination. Is it for this reason that in cloudy weather, when the lighting conditions are relatively stable for a long time, the fish are active throughout the day? But with a clear sky, when the pond is well lit, the middle of the day is the worst time for fishing. In addition, fodder objects – crustaceans, larvae of aquatic insects and the insects themselves, experiencing discomfort, by this time also try to hide in shelters. Therefore, at noon, experienced anglers usually put fishing rods and rest.
For beginners in winter fishing, it’s not a bad idea to start learning some rules, of which if there are exceptions, it is quite rare. In the morning you catch on a shiny bait. When the sun rises above the earth and illuminates everything around with its radiance, it is necessary to switch to a dimmer mormyshka, especially if you catch in shallow water. At depth and on a sunny day, you can continue to use the brilliant bait. This also applies to dusk fishing. At a depth of 5-6 m, sunlight penetrating the water column will be more diffuse than 0.5-1 m from the surface. Therefore, in deep places it may be catchy mormyshka with a shiny white or yellow surface, and aground – dull. At night, most fish, like people, do not distinguish color. For them, as for us, in the dark all cats are gray. From this we can conclude that under these conditions they rely more on the lateral line, touch, and sense of smell in search of food. Bark anglers, for example, know that a large, cautious bream is easier to catch in the morning twilight or at night than in the middle of the day when he sees perfectly.
For the perception of color, depth also matters. It was proved, in particular, that the red color of most fish can be distinguished only at a depth of 8 m, then it is already perceived by them as black. The green color of the fish is distinguished at a depth of 13 m, and over 20 m they all see in blue-green tones. It follows that at a depth of more than 5 m the color of mormyshka does not have much significance.
I mentioned that there are still exceptions to the general rules that I have cited. For example, a familiar fisherman, with whom I often went to the Ivankovo reservoir at one time, I caught perch and bream exclusively in winter in lead, unpainted mormyshka, “Ural”. He drilled holes in the dump of the old Volga channel, at a depth of 7 to 10 m. I do not remember the case that he returned home without a catch even when everyone around, having tried a dozen different mormyshka, remained without fish.
On the other hand, on a sunny day the Verkhovka in shallow water also brightly casts with silver sides. Nevertheless, perch during the zhor grabs her eagerly. Therefore, it is in such a situation that a brilliant mormyshka can bring success. Nevertheless, experts rightly believe that with a weak bite, the color of the bait often plays a decisive role. Many fish feed on bloodworms. It is red. And therefore fish are attracted to mormyshki, fully or partially painted in red. Leeches, bugs, crustaceans, mollusks – black or dark colors. Therefore, mormyshki of such shades are catchy. Golden and silver color reproduces the color of fry, which explains the success of fishing on such baits. Green is also familiar to fish – the color of algae. But bright lemon, dark blue, purple are unlikely to help the angler. It has been established over many years of practice that perch prefers a combination of red, black and yellow. Obviously, there is a connection with the coloring of the fodder objects with which it feeds.
In support of the above, I will give the following example. Once, a friend and I caught perch on the first ice in the upper part of the Vyshnevolotsky reservoir, at the confluence of the picturesque river Tsna. Apparently, due to the abundance of aquatic vegetation and the presence of a weak stream, the fish here were extremely picky. She felt that she had plenty of food. But here's the thing. I mostly took a small perch on my Moscow mormyshki (and I tried a lot that morning). While the friend continually pulled out quite weighty “sailors” on the ice and even caught a seven hundred grams of puppy. Finally, I could not stand it. "Well, show the mormyshka!" Victor calmly took out the bait and laid it on his palm. It was a Swedish mormyshka, motley colored with a predominance of green. Rummaging in the box, he found about the same and handed it to me. Soon, decent humpbacks began to collapse with me.
A novice angler sometimes finds with surprise that the mormyshka, which roach or bream take well, does not attract perch at all. We must experiment, not forgetting that the success of fishing also depends on skillful play. Each fisherman has his own tastes and his "well-deserved" mormyshki. In this case, I shared my experience, and in the drawings I showed those types of mormysheks that I have been using for many years. This is the set that is always with me when fishing and which has repeatedly helped me out in the most seemingly hopeless situations.
author: Kazantsev V.
We catch from the ice. All Secrets of Winter Fishing (Complete Fishing Guide)
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