Fisherman’s first aid kit. Part 1

Spring! Tired of the long winter, the soul is torn to nature. Take a break from the hustle and bustle of city life, breathe in the fresh spring air and completely surrender to your favorite pastime – fishing. As a rule, such outings are planned for many days. Caravans of cars loaded with fishing tackle and boats, like flocks of migratory birds, are drawn to bodies of water. A good company, a fish pond, proven tackle – what else is needed for complete happiness! But having escaped from the “blessings of civilization”, we also run away from qualified medical care, which may be needed at the most unexpected moment. It is in Chukovsky’s tales that there is a “good doctor Aibolit” who will always help. In reality, in case of trouble, you will have to rely only on your knowledge and the supply of medicines that is at hand. What do you need to put in the first aid kit when going fishing? How and in what cases to use one or another medication !? For answers, the editors turned to a professional – a practicing doctor with extensive experience and at the same time a passionate fisherman Igor Golishchenko.

Getting ready for the trip, the fisherman first of all thinks about the necessary tackle, nozzle and consumables, and secondly, about clothes, food and tourist accessories that will brighten up life between fishing trips. An important place is given to a certain amount of alcohol – where without it! The first-aid kit with a stock of medicines is remembered last and most often they rely on the coveted box with a red cross, which lies in the car. Alas, its content is absolutely insufficient. A simple list of necessary medicines will tell little to a person far from medicine. It will be easier to list the main groups of medicines and those situations in which they are needed. And everyone will make their own conclusions about the need for this or that drug.

Any wound must be pre-rinsed with an antiseptic. Liquid antiseptics such as chlorhexidine solution or miramistin are inconvenient to transport and do not tolerate freezing. It is much easier to prepare the solution on site. A weak solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) or a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide is well suited for this purpose. Peroxide is preferable: when in contact with blood, peroxide interacts with the tissue enzyme peroxidase – atomic oxygen is released, and dirt and bacteria are washed out of the wound together with the foam. It is not difficult to prepare a 3% solution. It is necessary to dissolve one perhydrol tablet containing 1.5 g of urea peroxide in 100 milliliters of water. The wound is washed until the abundant foaming stops.

BANDING

Let’s start with the dressing material. It will be needed for various injuries. A couple of bandages, a plaster and cotton wool – this is already in the medicine cabinet. This is enough only in the case of a minor injury to a limb – a cut in an arm or foot. If there is a fracture, sprain or dislocation of the joint, a complete immobilization of the limb is required. The tire can be made from any material at hand, at least from a couple of tree branches that are suitable for the thickness. It must be applied in such a way that two joints of the injured limb are fixed – above and below the damage. This is where the bandages come in. If the lower limb is fixed, a lot of them will be required – the length of a standard bandage is only enough for 6-7 turns around the thigh. It’s easier to stock up on a dozen gauze bandages of different widths in advance, and preferably in a sterile package. Bandages are also needed for dressing wounds. Most often these are cuts with glass in the water when swimming or careless handling of an ax or knife. Dressings and dry antiseptics are hygroscopic; it is better to store them in sealed plastic bags.

BLEEDING

The injury is accompanied by bleeding. It is most often venous and is stopped by applying a pressure bandage. The most dangerous are arterial bleeding. Their sign is the outflow of a pulsating stream of blood of a bright scarlet color from the wound. A good tourniquet is needed to stop arterial bleeding. You can, of course, use a waist belt and a wooden twist, but this is not always convenient and effective. In pharmacies, there is a large selection of harnesses of various designs with a fixing element with a screw twist. They are much more convenient to use than rubber ones. In essence, such a penny device can save someone’s life.

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When applying a tourniquet, it is always necessary to put a note under it with an exact indication of the time – after all, we completely stop blood circulation in the limb. In half an hour, irreversible changes will begin in the tissues, and if the tourniquet is applied for more than an hour, the limb will have to be amputated. It is necessary to loosen the tourniquet every 20 minutes to temporarily restore blood circulation.
Many people use medical clamps as extractors when fishing. In an extreme situation, they can also be used for their intended purpose – to clamp the arterial vessel visible in the wound. This will greatly facilitate the fate of the victim and will make it possible to dispense with the imposition of a tourniquet. It makes sense to buy such a clip in advance and put it in the first aid kit next to the dressing material. A clamp with teeth at the ends – jaws is required. These teeth prevent the instrument from sliding off the captured tissue.

IF VERY PAINFUL

The next formidable companion of injury is pain shock. Many post-traumatic complications are caused by it. Potent pain relievers are the domain of medical institutions. Far from civilization, you can only count on what you have with you, and these are, as a rule, pill analgesics. Their common disadvantage is the rather slow onset of the analgesic effect. The delay time is due to the slow rate of absorption of the drug in the stomach. You can speed it up by drinking a pill with a warm, sweet or soda liquid. It should also be remembered that a pill taken on an empty stomach will work much faster.

The consequence of a serious injury is the development of traumatic pain shock, while blood pressure is significantly reduced, blood microcirculation is impaired and the absorption of any drugs from the stomach is sharply slowed down. Taking pills in this situation is useless. We will not consider the introduction of drugs intravenously or intramuscularly – this is the lot of medical professionals. Alcohol can help out in this situation. Ethyl alcohol is one of the best analgesics in terms of effectiveness. Alcohol is rapidly absorbed both from the oral cavity and through the lining of the esophagus and stomach. There are certain subtleties here. It doesn’t make sense to get anesthetized with a glass of vodka right away. It is much more effective to take alcohol in small sips, trying to keep it in your mouth as long as possible. This will make it work much faster. How much alcohol to take is a purely individual question, but its total amount should not exceed 200 ml in 40-degree equivalent.

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Returning to the topic of pill analgesics, it is worth noting that they are always necessary in the first-aid kit. Bruises, sprains, joint pains, minor burns, headaches – we are used to resorting to these drugs. It should be remembered that pain is a protective reaction of the body. It is designed to protect us from even greater damage to an injured limb or a group of organs that has gone out of the normal rhythm of functioning. It is impossible to take analgesics systematically and without a good reason, however, there are many cases when you cannot do without them.

The most popular remedy among the people is analgin. This drug is more than 60 years old, it is outdated functionally and morally. Nowadays, modern drugs are available that are many times higher in efficiency and have less toxicity. Many of them are characterized not only by anesthetic, but also by a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect. Of the “pure” analgesics, ketorolac derivatives can be recommended: “Ketorol”, “Ketanov”, “Ketalgin”. Their analgesic effect is based on the inhibition of prostaglandins, the main mediators of inflammation. One tablet contains 10 mg of the active substance, the maximum daily dose is 40 mg (4 tablets).

If the reason for taking an analgesic is trauma, burns or pain in the joint (exacerbation of arthrosis with increasing physical activity), it is wiser to use a drug that has not only analgesic, but also anti-inflammatory effect. This group includes derivatives of nimesulide: “Nise”, “Nimica”, “Celebrex”. One tablet contains 100 mg of the active substance, a daily dose of 200 mg (2 tablets). It should be remembered that long-term use of these drugs can provoke an exacerbation of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.

Igor GOLISHCHENKO